Miso is a source of copper, manganese, vitamin K, protein, and zinc. The fermentation process means that miso is rich in enzymes. Fermentation enhances the number of beneficial bacteria in the food. These bacteria are known as probiotics and are thought to help a wide range of health issues, especially for digestion, absorption and assimilation of nutrients. By consuming fermented foods you are adding beneficial bacteria (known as probiotics) and enzymes to your overall intestinal flora, increasing the health of your gut microbiome and digestive system and enhancing the immune system. Studies in 1997 and 2013 have shown that beneficial bacteria synthesise vitamins in the gut, primarily vitamin K and vitamin B12, as a by-product of their metabolism. Miso is considered to be high in salt and should be consumed with the guidelines of no more than 6g per day in mind. There is much research on the benefits of including soy products in the diet. Although miso is made from soy beans, the quantity consumed is quite small and unlikely to have a profound oestrogenic effect.